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Music of Cape Verde

History Cape Verde is an island archipelago that was uninhabited until the Portuguese arrived in 1462. The sailors brought with...

History

Cape Verde is an island archipelago that was uninhabited until the Portuguese arrived in 1462. The sailors brought with them African slaves, and the islands’ population became mixed with elements of both races. Climate conditions made the islands unhospitable, and the Portuguese governments mostly ignored the inhabitants and the frequent droughts and famines that wracked the islands periodically. As a result, there are now more Cape Verdeans abroad than at home, and sizable communities exist inNew EnglandPortugalWalesSenegalItalyFrance and the Netherlands.

 

Folk music

Morna

Morna is by the most popular genre of Cape Verdean music, and it has produced an international superstar in Cesária ÉvoraMorna is a national song-style, like Argentinian tango, beloved by Cape Verdeans across the many islands of the country. It is related to Portuguese fado and its close cousin, Brazilian modinha. Lyrics are usually in Creole, and reflect highly-variable themes, including loveand lustpatriotism and mourning.

Morna is believed to have originated on Boa Vista as a cheerful song-type. Eugénio Tavares was an influential songwriter of the period, and his songs are still extensively performed. Morna also spread to São Vicente, and composers like B. Leza and Manuel de Novas became popular. Solo vocalists are accompanied by a guitarviolinbass guitar) and a piano. The cavaquinho (similar to a ukulele), a Portuguese instrument, is also common.

Aside from Évora, popular morna musicians include Ildo LoboTitinaCelina PereiraBanaDjosinhaB. LezaTravadinhaSãozinha and Maria Alice.

Funaná

Funaná is an accordion-based genre from Santiago. Prior to independence, funaná was denigrated by colonial authorities, who considered it African. Since independence, however, bands likeBulimundo adapted the music for pop audiences and Finaçon, who combined funaná and coladeira into a fusion called funacola.

In the 1930s, Morna evolved in a swifter form of music called coladeira. It is a more light-hearted and humorous genre, with sensual rhythms. Performers include Codé di donaManuel de NovasFrank CavaquimDjosa Marques and Os Tubarões.

Batuque

Batuque is also popular in Cape Verde. Originally a woman’s folk music, batuque is an improvised music with strong satirical or critical lyrics. In the 80’s, Orlando Pantera has created the “new batuco” (neo-batuku), but he died in 2001 before to achieve his creative work. Performers and songwriters are Pantera, Vadú, TchekaMayra Andrade, Lura, Zeca di nha Reinalda.

Coladeira

Coladeira is a form of dance and music from Cape Verde.

 

Popular music

Zouk

Zouk is a style of rhythmic music originating from the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. Zouk means ‘party’ in the local creole of French with English and African influences, all three of which contribute the sound. In Europe, it is particularly popular in France, while on the African islands of Cape Verde they have developed their own type of Zouk.

As it was said before, from the 80’s there is a strong influence from the zouk in Cape Verdian music. There has been fusion of the zouk with the coladeira, to what several names have been given ascola-dancecola-zoukcabo-swingcabo-love, etc. Cabo-zouk (from the islands’ Kriolu name Cabo Verde), cola-zouk (from coladeira), or cabo-love (from zouk-love, the slowed down and sexed up zouk variant).

Cape Verdian zouk musicians include, singer and Kora Award winner Suzanna LubranoFrank de PinaMendes Brothers (and their influential record labelMB Records), SaozinhaCreole Sextet andRui Pina.
There are many Cape Verdeans living abroad, especially in the United States, where they are concentrated in CaliforniaHawaii and throughout New England, especially Rhode Island and Boston. Many came on whaling ships in the 19th century. Their music included string bands like The B-29sNotiasAugusto Abrio and the Cape Verdean Serenaders. There were also Cape Verdean big bands, including the Creole Vagabonds and the Don Verdi Orchestra.


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